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The Brief Introduction of the Zhengyi Celestial-Master Daois

时间:2013-10-06 11:54:00  来源:龙虎山道教协会  作者:admin
----Brief History of Zhengyi Celestial-Master Daoism

Zhengyi sect Daoism was the earliest form of Daoism, formally founded as the primordial Chinese religion during Han Dynasty. It was created by the first venerable Celestial-Master Zhang Daoling during emperor Shundi’s reign from 140 AD to 142 AD. Prior to that date, China already had the solid Daoist culture based on the cultural cornerstone of Yi Ching, the Book of Changes. From the existing records of famous Han historian Sima Qian: Records of Grand Historian, Chinese ancestor the Yellow Emperor made the earliest inquiries about Daoism from a hermit immortal named Guang Chengzi. Guang Chengzi had thoroughly studied the Classics of Nature in Kongdong Cave. From this account, the Daoist Culture in China has spread in this motherland for more than 5000 years.

During the 600 years of Spring and Autumn Period (841BC—220BC), China was united by Zhou Dynasty after years of local conflicts and wars. It naturally entered a maturity of cultural development and a most active philosophical period. Therefore, it flourished a society of Hundred Schools of Thought which included Confucianism, Daoism, school of War Strategy, Legalism, Yin Yang Theory, Form and Name Study. The basis of these brilliant schools of thought, were the masterpiece Daodejing (Tao Te Ching) written by Laozi (Lao Tzu) and books of Zhuangzi, Liezi written by Lie Yukou, Wenzi written by Xinyan. These works formed the unique academic theories of Daoism.

Here, we need to explain the difference between Daojia, philosophical Dao and Daojiao, religious Dao. Briefly speaking, Daojia is an academic branch which puts Dao in the center and embodies the Daoist humanity of Cosmos viewpoint, humane outlook and methodology. Daojiao uses Daojia’s theory as the principal guidance which eventually formed a religious organization.

The founder of this religion is the first celestial master Zhang Daoling.

 

1.The Basic Theory of Daoism

While the Celestial Master Zhang Daoling created the religious Daoism, he used Daodejing as his highest spiritual scripture which was generated from its most fundamental belief of Dao and Virtue. Also, Zhuangzi’s idea of free pursuit, all things are equal, detachment, life and cultivation and other deity theories, plus Liezi’s work of cherishing void energy and cherishing the correctness. Joining these were other theories of Qin and Han dynasties in the Classics of Peace, Classics of Opening the Heaven and the Classics of Tranquility. Apparently, these had inherited and spread the pre-Qin Daoist theory.

The theory of Daojia and Daojiao is a huge and complicated philosophical system. The theory of Yin and Yang is the core spirit which means that a Yin and a Yang combines to become the universal Dao. The heaven and the human being combine perfectly into oneness. This is regarded as the most basic foundation of Cosmos viewpoint and practical outlook. The triple unity mind is the spirit of the myriad beings and deity worship which becomes the most basic pursuits of the Daoist belief.

To this extend, Daoist theory includes non-action, no competition, softness and weakness, maintaining Yin and “Ci”, light-heartedness, less desire, being content in life, emphasis on life etc. Daoism is a pursuit in society and humanity which advocates Nature and Harmony. It emphasizes the beauty of humanity, advocates loyalty, filial piety, honesty, trust etc. All these advocates imply a mutual and similar acceptance of Confucius and Buddhist doctrines, but also maintains itsdifference. Therefore, there is a saying that the Three Chinese Religions have the Same Origins. We need to point out that this is just one of the main subjects of the Daoist theory which has a naturally high level of abstract concepts. It is not the entire Daoist theory.

Chinese ancestor Fuxi created the Eight Diagrams when ancient China changed from a matrilineal world into a patriarchal society. This was the beginning of the sense of Qian and Kun which combines Yin and Yang, Heaven and Earth. During the dynasties of Yellow Emperor, Xia, Shang and Zhou, Chinese literal letters and language were clearly settled. In Spring and Autumn period, the Daojia theory became base of religious Daoism. In the Warring States Period, it complemented and fulfilled the Daoist theory and its philosophy, politics, laws and military affairs. During 200 years of the first emperor Qinshihuang and Han Wudi the Daoist innate alchemical medicine and Daoist sorcery appeared. In later Han Dynasty of 34 AD, Zhang Daoling was born in Tianmushan of Zhejiang province. He was appointed a local official at current Chongqing at age of 26. He decided to resign and live in complete simplicity after noticing the corruption and decline of the Later Han Dynasty.

In 90 AD, he brought his disciple to live in then called Yunjin Mountain of Jiangxi Province and practiced “the Miraculous Elixir of the Nine Heavens”. It took him three years to finally succeed. In his process of practicing innate alchemy appeared a vision of tiger, therefore, he changed the name of the mountain to Longhushan, the Tiger and Dragon Mountain where he practiced and spread Dao for 30 years. Due to a plague in Sichuan province at the Han Emperor Shudi’s period (126AD- 144AD), he undertook a very difficult journey to Heming and Yangping area of Sichuan at the age of 90 where he cured the disease of the local people with his blessed water and Daoist medicines. He also taught them to dig out wells, make salt and kill the wild animals. Consequently, Zhang Daoling organized the local people to set up the Daoist Covenanted Powers of Orthodox Oneness known as the Tianshidao which means the Way of Celestial Master Sect. The entry condition was five bushels of rice to support the plague survivors, thus the Daoist sect is also called the Way of Five Bushels of Rice Sect.

After creating Daoism, Zhang Daoling devised 24 areas to govern the laymen Daoists, with a systematic Daoist sovereign governance. Consequently, in 142 AD of Han Dynasty, with the direct delivery from the Venerable Laozi he obtained

the Direct Powers from the Heaven and Treat and became the Celestial Master. He gradually reached about 10 thousand ordained Daoist families mainly located in Sichuan, Chongqing and Shaanxi Province.

 At the end of the Later Han Dynasty between 179AD to 215AD,the third direct lineage of Celestial Master Zhanglu settled in central Shaanxi province and created a monarchy that combined religion with politics. He called himself Shijun and the laymen Daoists Guizu. He even used his own legislation and punishment to govern his areas. But with his righteous rice to save the people in disasters, he still received the public support from the local residents and ruled the area for 30 years. Lots of refugees came to central Shaanxi Province which brought a heyday for the Five Bushels of Rice Dao.

In 215, Caocao conquered the central area of Shaanxi and Zhanglu surrendered to Caocao due to his fierce attacks. Zhanglu finally obtained an aristocratic rank. In fear of possible Daoist rebellion, Caocao dispersed many laymen Daoists to Chang’an and Zhanglu himself had to move to current Hebei province. As a result, the Five Bushels of Rice Dao had a chance to spread and develop in the northern part of China.

At the end of Three Kingdoms (220AD—265AD), the fourth direct lineage of

Celestial Master Zhangsheng held the precious Daoist seal, sword and Daoist register to return to the ancestral heritage of Longhushan and erect the simple Daoist halls and altars. From then on, Zhengyi Celestial Master Daoism rooted in Longhushan and has been ever since.

At Jin Dynasty (266AD--- 420AD), the original Daoist Covenanted Powers of Orthodox Oneness (Five Bushels of Rice Dao) forced a separation. Some famous elites like Gehong, Duzigong in the aristocratic circle worshiped the Five Bushels of Rice Dao. Wei Huacun at Eastern Jin Dynasty created Shangqing Sect of Daoismwhich popularized in current Maoshan of Jiangsu province. They were later called the Maoshan Sect. Gehong edited the Scripture of Lingbao and created Lingbao Sect of Daoism which centered in the area of Gezhaoshan in Jingxi province. In the period of Northern and Southern Dynasty (420AD--- 589AD), Kou Qianzhi represented Northern Celestial Master Daoism and activated the Daoist events along the Yangtze River in the areas of Hebei, Henan, Shanxi and Hubei provinces. Lu Xiujing represented the Southern Celestial Master Daoism and worked actively in Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Hunan and Jiangxi areas. From the fourth to ninth lineage the Celestial Masters all settled and centered in Longhushan and created Tiger and Dragon Daoist Sect which resulted in the combined Three Mountains of Daoism(Longhushan, Maoshan and Gezhaoshan).

Due to the same family names Li and Laozi (Lao Tzu), the emperors of Tang Dynasty worshiped Laozi as their own ancestor and referred to him as “the Supreme Sovereign Emperor”. Naturally, Daoism obtained huge support from the royalty. Many of the important dynasty founders and heroes came from a Daoist background. They include: Wei Zheng, Li Jin, Li Chunfeng, Sima Chengzen etc. They were all high ranking officials and well respected by the public.

 The emperor of Tang Dynasty Gaozong once summoned a meeting with the 12th Celestial Master Zhang Heng and asked him how to govern the country? Zhang Heng responded as “manage action through inaction” which brought a high acclaim from the emperor. From that time, the Tiger and Dragon Sect of Daoism stepped into a booming age. In 737 AD, it built the Daoist palace “Mysterious Origin” and helped the Daoists to learn the theory of mystery. Many royal empresses and concubines entered the Daoist palaces and eventually became ordained. In 748, the Celestial Master Zhang Daoling was royally rewarded as the National Master anda Daoist Register Hall was built for him in the capital city Chang’an. The emperor wrote directly to the 15th lineage of Celestial Master Zhang Gao for launching more Daoist rituals in Longhushan and building a new Zhenxian Palace over there which brought another Daoist booming and prosperity for Celestial Master Daoism.

All the emperors in Song Dynasty worshiped Daoism following Tang’s tradition. A famous Daoist Chen Tuan who was excellent in Yi Ching study, created a Bagua Chart (Eight Diagrams Chart) at the beginning of Song Dynasty. He also wrote a book named “Enigma Book, 81 Chapters”. Another acclaimed Daoist Zhang Ziyang (Zhang Boduan) was the founder of Southern Sect of Neidan in Daoism and wrote a Daoist book Wuzhenpian (Scripture of Thinking Reality). The 24th lineage of Celestial Master Zhang Zhengsui had a royal meeting with Song Emperor and was awarded Mr. Real Tranquility. He then used the Daoist Register Hall to recruit and register the national Daoists. Also, he was the first Celestial Master to be known as a Mr. Celestial Master. During the entire 319 years of Song Dynasty (960—1279), Longhushan Celestial Master Daoism obtained the full support from the royal government. The 12 Celestial Masters of Song Dynasty also obtained the emperor’s royal title as well as financial support to build the Mansion of the Celestial Master. In 1239 of Song Dynasty, the Song Emperor asked the 35th lineage of Celestial Master Zhang Keda to host three mountains Daoist rituals on relevant Daoist issues. Therefore, the three main Daoist branches of Southern China (Shangqing, Lingbao, Zhengyi) all came under the general management of Celestial Master Zhang. The Mansion of Celestial Master in Longhushan became the ancestral base of Daoism in Southern China.

In Yuan Dynasty (1279---1368), the Celestial Master Dao of Longhushan continuously obtained the imperial treatment. Each Celestial Master handled the Daoist activities in Southern China and led the Daoist Register in three main Daoist mountains (Longhushan, Maoshan, Gezaoshan).The 38th lineage of Celestial Master Zhang Yucai was bestowed to an equivalent high rank official with a golden seal.

The disciple of the 36th lineage of Celestial Master Zhang Zongyan, Zhang Liusun also reached a national official rank and called Deity Prime Minister for his public service and merits.

In 1368 of Ming Dynasty, the 42nd lineage Celestial Master Zhang Zhengchang was given the titile:“Zhengyi Daoist Grand True Man”by the emperor. The following year he obtained the imperial permission to manage permanently the Daoist issues in China, with a royal edict of anti-forge but implementing the authentic Daoist talisman issued only by Longhushan. In 1526, the emperor wrote a plaque “the Altar of Myriad Laws”and gave the absolute authority of all the Daoist affairs to Celestial Masters, including the new Daoist branches Quanzhen Sect(the Complete Reality)and Jingming Dao. Therefore, the Mansion of the Celestial Master finalized its unique status as the cradle of Chinese Daoism.

During 267 years of ruling history of Qing Dynasty, although the social status of Zhengyi Celestial Master Daoism was lowered, each Celestial Master still received the imperial reward from different Qing emperors. Their hereditary position had not changed. In 1766, emperor Qianlong prized the Celestial Master in the third rank of the 9 official ranking system of Qing Dynasty.

From the beginning of the first Celestial Master to the creation of the Daoist religion and the generation of the Daoist renaissance in Tang Dynasty, Zhengyi Celestial Master Daoism has kept the leadership role in Daoist China from Song,Yuan, Ming to Qing dynasties. The Mansion of Celestial Master in Longhushan becomes the Daoist ancestral cradle which evokes the public worship throughout history; thus the saying: “ northern China has Confucius, southern China worships Master Zhang”. Untill 1969 when the 63rd in the lineage, Celestial Master Zhang Enfu passed away in Taiwan, there was total of 63 generations of Celestial Masters during 1800 years of history.

 

2.Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM)

Traditional Chinese Medicine, also known as TCM, is a very important Daoistphenomena in China. It includes a range of traditional medicine practices with an alternative medical system which has reached much of the Western world.

TCM practices include treatments such as Chinese herbal medicine, acupuncture, dietary therapy and Tui Na massage. Martial Arts related practices such as Qigong and Taijiquan are also associated with Daoism and TCM. Major theories include those of Yin-Yang, the Five Elements, the human body Meridian/Channel system and Zang Fu organ theory.

Legend has it that after a dialogue with his minister Qibo (岐伯), the Yellow Emperor (2698BC - 2596 BC) composed his work on Neijing or Inner Canon. The book Huangdi Neijing (《黄帝内经》)was compiled just over two-thousand years ago. Another Chinese index book of herbs is Bencao Gangmu (《本草纲目》) by Li Shizhen.

During the Han Dynasty (202 BC –220 AD), Zhang Zhongjing (张仲景), the Hippocrates of China, who was mayor of Chang-sha towards the end of the 2nd century AD, wrote a Treatise on Cold Damage, which contains the earliest known reference to Neijing Suwen. Another prominent Eastern Han physician was Hua Tuo (c. 140 – c.208 AD), who anesthetized patients during surgery with a formula of wine and powdered cannabis. The Jin dynasty practitioner and advocate of acupuncture and moxibustion, Huang-fu Mi (215 - 282 AD), also quoted the Yellow Emperor in his Jia Yi Jing (甲乙经), ca. 265 AD. During the Tang dynasty, Wang Bing claimed to have located a copy of the originals of the Neijing Suwen, which he expanded and edited substantially. This work was revisited by an imperial commission during the 11th century AD.

There were noted advances in Chinese medicine during the Middle Ages. Emperor Gaozong (r. 649–683) of the Tang Dynasty (618–907) commissioned the scholarly compilation of a materia medica in 657 that documented 833 medicinal substances taken from stones, minerals, metals, plants, herbs, animals, vegetables, fruits, and cereal crops. In his Bencao Tujing (Illustrated Pharmacopoeia), the scholar-official Su Song (1020–1101) not only systematically categorized herbs and minerals according to their pharmaceutical uses, but he also took an interest in zoology..

TCM is seen by some sinologists as part of the evolution of a culture, from shamans blaming illnesses on evil spirits to "proto-scientific" systems of correspondence. The TCM system has been analyzed , sometimes skeptically but extensively by practitioners throughout history and its development has continues over many centuries.

The simple Daoist belief is that the harmonious world can come through the Universal DAO. Zhengyi Celestial-Master Daoism initiated the Daoist roots of Chinese civilization. It created a unique religious culture and developed it throughout history to the modern times.

 

  (责任编辑:御剑飞行的dream)
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